Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur
(02.14.1483 , Andijan – 26/12/1530 , Agra)
Great poet and writer, public figure, scholar, lexicographer, linguist and literary critic
Our compatriot, one of the last Timurids, Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur holds an honorable place in the galaxy of world luminaries of science, culture, art, and socio-political activity. His father, Umar Sheikh Mirza, Amir Timur’s grandson, was the ruler of Ferghana region. His mother, Kutlugh Nigarkhanum, was Yunuskhan’s daughter, the ruler of Tashkent. Babur was born on February 14, 1483 in Andijan, died on December 26, 1530 in Agra. He was educated at the court, since early childhood he was interested in science and poetry. His mentor was Khoja Mavlono Kalon, the famous scientist and thinker.
In June 1494 after the tragic death of his father twelve-year-old Babur was proclaimed a ruler. In 1500, sixteen-year-old Babur, with two hundred forty warriors conquered Samarqand for the second time.
Then the years of wandering began for Babur. Being left without troops and his throne, he tossed between Djizzakh and Uratepa, Mastchakh and Tashkent, Pskent and Angren, Parkent and Kokand, Osh and Akhsikent. Then he went to Afghanistan.
In 1504, Babur conquered Kabul fortress and suppressed it. From 1504 -1526 Kabul was ruled by Babur, then by his son Kamran Mirza. During 1519-1525 he undertook several military expeditions to India. In April 1526 in the battle near Panipat Babur, possessing the twelve thousand warriors defeated Ibrahim Ludi’s army. Later he conquered the territory, lying up to the borders of Bengal and moved the capital of his state to Agra, laying the foundation of the future mighty empire.
After his death Babur was buried in Agra, but according to his own will, the poet and ruler, his remnants were moved to the picturesque district of Kabul, called “The Garden of Babur” (“Bogi Bobur”) .
The main scientific-literary heritage
Babur-name – Memoirs
Risolai harb – a treatise on military campaigns
Divani Babur – a collection of poems
Mubayyin – a treatise on Fiqh
Treatise on Aruz – a treatise on poetic metrics
Hatti Boburi – one of the variants of the Arabic alphabet for the Uzbek language
Risolai Musiqa – a treatise on music
Risolai volidiya – translation of philosophical and Sufi writings by Khoja Ahrar into the Uzbek language
Contribution to the World Civilization
Babur-name is the pearl of Babur’s written heritage, priceless historical and literary work that brought him a worldwide fame. Babur is one of the greatest masters of belles-letters, who made a great contribution to the development of Uzbek literature and world civilization. His scientific and literary legacy, especially a unique encyclopedic work entitled “Babur-name” containing valuable information on history, geography, ethnography, flora and fauna, people, languages and the way of life of the population of Central Asia, Afghanistan, India in the late XV- XVI centuries still arouses a worldwide great interest.
Immortal literary, artistic, scientific and historical works by Babur withstood the test of time and went down in history as the world cultural heritage of our people. After the independence of Uzbekistan, his works took on a new life and continue to serve to the cause of spiritual enrichment and education of a person. Zakhiriddin Muhammad Babur’s creative work, entering the golden fund of the world culture, has become worthy of historical heritage and pride of our nation.
Jawaharlal Nehru in his book “Discovery of India”, characterizing Babur, wrote: “Babur is a charming personality. A typical representative of the Renaissance, he was distinguished for his courage and resourcefulness. He was a fan of art and poetry, loved to enjoy the life.”
Babur’s scientific and historical and literary works were translated into dozens of languages across the world. A great interest in the creative legacy of our compatriot has not been banished for centuries. He is studied by researchers from different countries, he is the subject of hundreds of scientific papers, artworks and films, several museums have been opened in his honor. More than 70 reports on Babur’s and his ancestors’ lives and works feeding the modern society with beneficial ideas have been presented at the recent international conference by leading local scholars, academicians and representatives of universities, colleges of Uzbekistan who studied Babur’s life and works, as well as by foreign researchers.
Under this conference “Babur’s Encyclopedia” was presented, which became a logical outcome long lasting scientific research. It includes the results of the most important studies of Babur’s life, his works, information about historical figures mentioned in “Babur-name”.