(9.02.1441, Herat – 3.01.1501)
great poet and thinker, statesman, the founder of Uzbek literature
Alisher Navoi was born in Heart, on the 9th of February 1441.His father, Guiyasiddin Kichkine, was a prominent man and civil servant, and his grandmother was a wet-nurse for Timurid’s children. Adolescent Alisher was brought up together with offsprings of Amir Temur’s family. At the age of 4 he was sent to school.
After the death of the governor Shahruh in Horasan a power feud rose and most people were forced to leave Herat.
The family of Guiyasiddin Kichkine moved to Iraq and set up in Taft town, but in 1452, when Abul-Kasym Bobur had been confirmed for the position of the governor, they returned to Herat.
Guiyasiddin Kichkine served at the court of Babur. After a time he was named chief of city administration in Sabzavar. Alisher stays in Herat and continues his study.
At the age of 15 together with Sultan Husayn Boyqaro he started to serve at Bobur’s court. In 1456 Abul-Kasim Bobur moved to Meshhed city and Navoi and Husain Baikara followed him.
Soon after internecine feuds and animosities were sleeping Navoi returned to Herat. Then Navoi went to one of the great cultural centers of the country – Samarkand and studied at madrasah found by Fayzullah Abu-l-Leysa – an outstanding jurisprudent and Arab language expert.
In 1469 Abu-Said had died in a battle and the throne was taken by Husayn Boyqaro. At the invitation of the school friend that became the ruler of Khorasan city Navoi moves from Herat to Samarkand in the same year.
Navoi died on the 3rd of January in 1501. Heart city mourned the poet’s death.
The Main Literary-Scientific Works
“Badoyi-ul-bidoya” (“Rarity of Starting”) – the first diwan; 2. “Navodir-un-nihoya” (“Peculiar of the End”) – the second dewan; 3. “Hazoyin-ul-maoniy” (“The Treasure of Thoughts”) – the collection of lyric works; 4. “Dewoni Foniy” – The Collection of Persian poems; 5. “Fusuli arba” (“Four Seasons of a Year” – four rhymes about seasons of the year; 6. “Khamsa” (“ The Five Poems” ) – an epic cycle, consisting of five poems; 7. “Lison-ut-tayir” – (The Language of Birds”) – a philosophical poem; 8. “Mahbub-ul-qulub” (“ A Loved Heart”) – a philosophy prose work; 9. “Majolis-un-nafois” (“The set of fanciers”) – The anthology poetry dated XV centuries; 10. “Mezon-ul-avzon” (“The Scales of the sizes”) – The treatise about size’s principles of Aruz; 11. “Risolai muammo” – (“The treatise about Muamma genre”); 12. “Muhokamat-ul-lughatayin” The Dispute of Two Languages’”) – a linguistic treatise; 13. “Khamsat-ul-muttahayirin” (“Five Fanciers”) – The treatise about Abdurahman Jamiy; 14. “Holoti Sayid Hasan Ardasher” – (“Sayid Hasan Ardasher’s life”) 15. “Holoti Pahlavan Mahmud” – (“Pahlavan Mahmud’s life) 16. “Munshaot” – (“ The Letters”); 17. “Forsiy munshaot” – (“Persian letters”); 18. “Vaqfiya” – (“Vaqfiya note”); 19. “Tarikhi muluki Ajam” – (The history about Persian kings”); 20. “Nazm-ul-javohir” (“The threading of the pearls”) – The collection about theology and morality; 21. “Nasoim-ul-muxabbat” (“Zephyrs of love”) – Sufiys’ life; 22. “Tarikhi anbiyo va hukamo” (“The history about prophets and sages”); 23. “Sirodj-ul-muslimin” (“The Light of Orthodoxies’”); 24. “Chikhil Khadis” (“Forty Legends”) and others.
Contribution to the World Science
Navoi’s “ The Fifth” became one of the most famous promotion of the poet. That work opened the emerging of a new stage at the history of a three hundred – literature tradition.
Having achieved the top of the glory and brilliant success at a lyric genre, Navoi addressed to a great epic canvas and got down to establish “ The Fifth”. A Monumental epic cycle of Navoi “ The Fifth” is considered invaluable sample of Uzbek classic literature which became a well-known memorial of world literature.
His name is equal in a one line with the names of Gomer and Dante, Rudaki and Firdousi, Nizami and Rustavelli, Saadi and Jami, Shakespeare and Balzac, Pushkin and Tolstoy.
He devoted al his activity and a deep humanistic creation to serving in the sake of people, flourishing of the science, art and literature. He was a wise counselor and mentor who taught a whole pleiad personalities of culture dated XV-XVI centuries.
Zahiriddin Babur remembered as: “Alisher Navoi was a man to whom anybody wasn’t equal. He marvelously wrote so many poems in Turkic that anybody hadn’t written such amount until him”. Other contemporary of the poets also give a high mark to Navoi’s creation
In the past all his books in art and science were translated into the Eastern and Western languages. For instance, “The Set of Fanciers” was translated into the Persian language more than three times. The first translated work into other languages was the poem “The Seven Planets” issued in the Italian language in 1557.
Georgian poet dated back from the XVII century Tsitsishili carried out a free translation of Navoi’s dastan “Sabai Sayor”. At the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX centuries. “The Dispute of Two Languages” was translated into the Turkish and Tatar languages.
Russian scientists made a great contribution in learning Navoi’s creation heritage. They are famous peoples such as Ye.A.Bertels, A.N.Kononov, A.K.Borokov, A.Boldirev, N.S.Ivanov and others.
French Scientist Katramer issued “Muhokamat-ul-lughatayin”, “Tarikhi muluki Ajam”, H.Vamberi dated “Mahbub-ul-qulub” and the poem “Farhad and Shirin” in German. A French orientalist M.Belen also translated and issued . “Majolis-un-nafois” in a French language.
A Russian scientists M.Nikitskiy was also writing that : “Mir Alisher Navoi took a seat of honor in the history of an oriental literature”. And other famous scientist N.I.Ilminskiy highly appreciated Navoi’s works and noted that “Alisher Navoi was a flaming fighter for development of native language”. An English orientalist Ch.Riyo writes that “Mir Alisher Navoi was a historic personality who had stated an irreplaceable contribution in the expansion of a Turkic literature. And a well known scientist A.Brown noted that “ The importance of creation heritage and patronage of Alisher Navoi is incomparably great” in his monograph work.
Navoi took one of the honest place among classics of world literature. He is named as their teacher by most poets and admired by his immortal creation. Most classic of Tajic literature highly appreciated Navoi’s literature, Azerbaijani as – Fuzuli, Kishvari, Mirzo Fatali Axundov, Sabir, Turkmen poets Azadi, Makxumtuli and Zelili, Kazak writer Abay, Kara-Kalpak wielders a formidable pen Berdax and aAdjiniyaz and others who devoted their “Nadzira” – literature answers to separate works of the poet.
As a sign of acknowledgement to genius, the most of the streets were called by his name in Alma-Ata, Baku, Ashkhabad, Kiev and, etc. A monument is set to a famous poet in the cities such as Moscow, Tokyo, Baku, Osh, bás-relief – Mazār-e Sharīf in Afghanistan. The crater in Mercury is also named after Navoi.