Abu Ali ibn Sina
(980. village Afshana-1037, Hamadan)
Abu Ali al-Huseyn ibn Abdallah ibn Sina was born in Afshana near Bukhara. He got primary education by his father, then he learned sciences at Abu Abdallah an- Natili in Bukhara. For special achievements in 996 the young Huseyn was invited to emir Nuha ibn Mansura as-Samani’s palace (976-997). But soon the rulling of Samanids ended and after 1002 year Ibn Sino moved to Gurganj – to the khorezmshah Abu-l-Hasana Ali ibn Mamun (997-1009). Here he becoms one of the most active members of Mamun academy. In 1011 Ibn Sino, leave Gurganj with masihi, avoiding the chase of sultan Mahmud Gaznevi. He going to Abivard at thee north of Horasan, then – to the Nishapur and then – to the Gurgan and then – from 1014 to 1037 he live in Re, Isfahan. Ibn Sino died in 1037 year in Hamadanl. His grave saved here till our days.
Main science works
Ibn Sino was the real encyclopedia-scientist successfully worked almost all kinds of subjects of knowledge of his times. There are more than 450 his works, and about 240 of them saved till our days, they are written mainly in Arabic.
Scientific opinion of Ibn Sino is well considered in his following works: al-kanun fi-t-tibb (Canons of Medicine) – medical encyclopedia, in which organized all the questions of theoretical and practical medicine of that period of time; it consists of 5 books. Kitab ash-shifa (the book of healing) – philosophical encyclopedia, which contain of 4 parts: logic, extact sciences, mathematic sciences, metaphysics (theology). Kitab an-najat (the book of saving) – the short version of book on healing. Danish-name (the book of knowledge) – philosophic work in Persian, in which he considered many question of theoretic philosophy, and logic as well. Risala al-iksir (tract of elixir) – honored to chemistry, to practical ways of transmutation of steels, al-Aydviyat al-kalbiya (medicine for heart) – philosophic-medicine work, honored of healing heart diseases, in which giving the authors opinion about a soul. Salaman va Ibsal (Salaman and Ibsal), (Alive son of Awake) – literature-philosophic stories. Correspondence with Ibn Sino and Beruni on physics and philosophy.
The range of interests of the scientist is very wide: medicine, philosophy, logic, psychology, physics, astronomy, math, music, chemistry, ethics, literature, linguistics and etc. But Ibn Sino became famous mainly because of his works for medicine and philosophy. The “Canons of Medicine” and philosophic encyclopedia “the book of healing”, which includes not only philosophic questions, but also of natural knowledge.
Contribution to the World Science
Ibn Sino has taken an active part in many kinds of science, offering very modern scientific ideas of his period of time.
In astronomy, in one of his works, quoting by Beruni, Ibn Sino give his specific way of calculating of length of a city, using the watching of shadowing of the moon; he firstly made a tool, which from XVI cent. Was known as “nonius” (radial astronomic tool for calculating of some spherihic coordinates of suns), By the name of Portugal scientist Nonius who was the second to explored it.
He made some theories in natural knowledge about the origin of earthquakes, volcanoes, appearance of mountains, which was set in modern geology, made classification of a things, classification of a sciences, in which he set the natural sciences for the first place
In medicine he made new and effective methods of diagnosis, therapeutical and surgeon healing, most of which was secondly discovered in Europe. Also Ibn Sino brought much new in anatomy. For example he fixed prescription of the eye and its functions, gave a new explanation of viewing process, close to the modern imagination. Famous historian, academic V.N. Ternovsky, prescription of structure and function of vessels, nerves and muscles give the link between anatomy and practic, which let to consider the basist of Russian practic anatomy N. Pirogov as a follower of Avicenna.
Avicenna was a good diagnosis. Some of his methods of diagnosis doesn’t lose its meaning to the nowadays.
For example, precussion – understanding of diseases by knocking to the gland. This method was secondly discovered By Venice doctor Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809) after 600 years after Avicenna. This method began practiced only after 50 years. Firstly in the history of medicine Avicenna differed cholera from plague; exactly prescript the symptoms and continuation of meningitis, stomach ulcer, hepatitis, plevritis, leprosy, chicken pox and another illnesses. He understood the rabies, its transmissibility, symptoms and state of patient at this illness.
Avicenna made a lot in developing of surgery. In his medical works, for example, in famous “Canons of Medicine” Avicenna prescript the methods, which nowadays are using in modern surgery. For example, knitting of h(a)emorrhoidal node, stopping the bleeding with tampon, caustic or sewing up, tracheotomy (cut and putting a pipe in the throat for breathing), and also Fixing of dislocation of shoulder with simple pressing on is known as “Avicenna’s method” till nowadays. Besides, Avicenna got a big attention to anesthesia while operations. For this goal he used the plants with narcotic action.
Avicenna took a big part in developing of pharmacy. He ended the formation of new pharmacy, which appeared in the Muslim East based on formation of ancient scientists. His methods of taking, keeping, processing of medical plants are very close to the modern one.
Today many medicines, used by Avicenna, are using in modern pharmacopeia.
In his works Ibn Sino developed the classic Greek philosophy, added it with new ideas. His philosophic correspondence with Beruni the researchers named as «correspondence of the century». In it Ibn Sino had a discuss with Beruni about the teachings of Aristotle (384-322 year BC) for some question of physics (natural place of bodies and substances, the centrifugal force of bodies,, divisibility of tiny particles of a variety of worlds, self-fix in substances questions optics, vacuum availability, etc. The content of correspondence indicates advanced for their time views of these scientists in many of current issues of science.
Ibn Sino is one of those great persons, whose service to humanity is difficult to convey.
His name is associated with one of the most demand at all times a branch of science medicine: his works since the 12th century were translated into Latin and from the 15th century were published about 40 times. Until the 18th century in all the universities of Europe medicine were taught by “canon” and the name of the scientist became famous in Western Europe in the Latinized form as “Avicenna”.
Scientific, philosophical outlook of such prominent European thinkers and cultural figures like Roger Bacon (1214-1291), Dante (!265-1221), Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Michelangelo (1475-1564), Vesalius (1514-1564),Volterra (1694-1778), Goethe (1749-1832) were influenced by the works of Avicenna.
Writings of Ibn Sino on various sciences translated and published repeatedly in many western and eastern languages, including Russian and Uzbek. His name have been immortalized in the names of: tropical plants as Avicenna, mineral avisennit as well as great number of street names, educational and medical institutions, and monuments all around the world.